These meteorologists then prepare a presentation of the forecast to share with the public. They can do this through TV or radio news, or through apps and other online sources where people can find information on their own. They try to make these forecasts available in as many places as possible to make the information as accessible as possible so that everyone can find it and prepare for it. The main consumers of meteorological information are aviation and naval (water). Agriculture is also highly dependent on weather and climate. Productivity is greatly influenced by soil and air moisture, precipitation, light and heat. At the end of the 19th century, an independent branch of meteorology, agricultural meteorology, was formed. Climate information is widely used in the design and operation of various structures - buildings, airports, railways, power lines, etc.
Collect weather data from all over the country
Current weather is measured using special instruments at meteorological stations and points located in all regions of the country. To collect and transmit meteorological information, a common meteorological code is used: each natural phenomenon, whether cloud or rain, is assigned a code. A set of such codes was sent to the hydrometeorological centers of Russia and the world. There they are loaded into a computer program that creates weather maps of different layers of the atmosphere. Cyclones and anticyclones are clearly distinguished on the map. However, computers cannot determine how this will affect the weather in the area, so forecasters analyze maps. The main meteorological parameters include: temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation and their amount. To measure them on land, networks of meteorological stations operate. There are 1670 such weather stations in Russia, and more than 53 thousand in China. They can be manned by meteorologists or fully automated. For example, in the USA there is a network of Automatic Surface Surveillance System (ASOS). Such meteorological stations are installed in more than 900 airports of the country and collect information about weather phenomena.
Analyze weather data to improve forecasting
Numerical atmospheric models are very helpful in preparing weather forecasts. These are very sophisticated computer programs that can predict the future state of the atmosphere based on its initial conditions. To predict any progress, we need the most complete and accurate data on the current state of the atmosphere.
Previously, forecasts were based primarily on changes in atmospheric pressure, current weather conditions and the state of the sky, but now predictive models are used to determine the weather in the future. Human input is needed to select the most appropriate forecasting model on which future forecasts will be based. This includes the ability to select model templates, taking into account the relationship of remote events, knowledge of the principles of operation and features of the selected model. The complex nature of the atmosphere, the need for powerful computers to solve equations that describe the atmosphere, errors in measurements of initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes all mean that forecasts are less accurate. The greater the difference between the current time and the forecast time (forecast horizon), the less accurate it is. Using several models and bringing them to the same result helps to reduce the number of errors and achieve the most probable result.